Tuesday, November 12, 2013

Information and Communication

The word ‘data’ is Latin in origin, and literally, it means anything that is given.

UNESCO defines data as ‘facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner
suitable for communication, interpretation or processing by human or automatic
means’.

For categorizing data in sciences, certain parameters are used.

There are six parameters using which six basic types of data are derived. Within
each of these types there are two or three classes.

The parameters for categorization used in sciences are:
1) time factor,
2) location factor,
3) mode of generation,
4) quantitative values,
5) terms of expressions, and
6) modes of presentation.

Information:

information, late 14c., "act of informing," from Old French informacion, enformacion 

"information, advice, instruction," from Latin informationem (nominative informatio) 


Brookes, the well known British Bibliometrician and Information Scientist, calls the
fundamental equation of information science.

K [S] +D I = K [S+ D S],

which states in its very general way that the knowledge structure K[S] is changed to the new modified structure K[S + D S] by the information I, the S indicating the effect of the modification. 

In other words, K is a knowledge structure and [S+ DS] is modified knowledge structure caused by the absorption of the increment of information DI to K [S]

The barriers to communication of information flow are of the following kinds:

Language ,Jargon, Presentation,Over Population Pollution (Noise), Delays in Handling,
Economic, Political, Legal Barriers.

Communication:

The word ‘Communication’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Communis’, which means ‘sharing’.

Elements of Communication Process

Most of the communication systems, whether sophisticated or not, are perceived to possess the following basic elements:

l Information source
l Encoder
l Message
l Communication Channel
l Noise
l Decoder and
l Receiver/Destination.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication 1949

Lasswell’s Model

Lasswell, a U.S. Political Scientist developed this model in 1948.

The model is summarised as “Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect”?

George Gerbner’s Model

This model is conceptually different from the earlier two models. Gerbner  developed this model in 1956.

Schramm Model. 1971


Bits, nats and hartleys : Units assigned to dimensionless measure of information depending on the base of logarithm used. Bits when the base is 2, nats when the base is e and hartleys when the base is 10.

40 comments

hemantkhatarkar said...

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hemantkhatarkar said...

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hemantkhatarkar said...

ITS VERY USEFUL

NEENA M G said...

good

hai said...

THANK YOU FOR THIS GREAT JOB

Anil Dewangan said...

thnks sir

pramod said...

wonderful

Anil Dewangan said...

thnanks sir

Sree Rag said...

Thank you sir.. its very useful

G Vijay said...

I think The Schramm's Model emphasized in 1954

G Vijay said...

I think The Schramm's Model emphasized in 1954

govind tare said...

thanks sir

Ravi Boyina said...

thanks sir

sandip kubal said...

Thanks sir ... is very useful information...

Gprince Libn said...

Thank you sir

jitendra namdev said...

thanks sir,

UMA MAHESWARARAO ISARAPU said...

thank you very much for usefull link

Unknown said...

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Sadashiv Shurpani said...

NICE ONE SIR.....

govind tare said...

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sannyprince said...

पुस्तकालय विज्ञान के विद्यार्थियों के लिये अत्यंत उपयोगी
आपके के इस प्रयास के लिये आपका अभिनन्दन करता हूँ

B Nani said...

thank you sir

Anonymous said...

Very useful sir

suman singh said...

very useful

Unknown said...

thank you sir

madhu said...

Thanks a
lot...

Apurva Joshi said...

thanks a lot

PRABHAT KUMAR SWAIN said...

thanks sir

PRABHAT KUMAR SWAIN said...

Thanks sir

Unknown said...

Thank u sir

Shekhar Chilukuri said...

thank you very much

Rajshree Autade said...

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Ramesh Rayapudi said...

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Unknown said...

very good and informative presentation

Chidambar Narayan Joshi said...

very good and informative presentation

RAJEEV PANDYA said...

Hello, Sir
Very very useful information at a one place, Sir kindly send the notes in Hindi, It will be helpful for them also.

RAJEEV PANDYA said...

Hello Sir,
Very very useful info at one place, thanks for the effort, If possible kindly send the link in Hindi also, it will be more helpful, And add quiz about mobile OS, android etc... and ICT also in further units.
Thanks!

Thirunavukkarasu T C said...

I don't know Hindi. If you want in hind, use translation widget

bhagya raghuram said...

Good

Rajeshwari Patil said...

thank you very much sir.