Paper 1 Unit VI: Pramanas: Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana (Comparison), Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension).

1. What is the first step in the process of anumāna according to Nyāya philosophy?
A) Hetu
B) Udāharaṇa
C) Pratijñā
D) Upanaya

2. Which component of anumāna serves as the logical connection between the proposition and the evidence?
A) Nigamana
B) Hetu
C) Udāharaṇa
D) Upanaya

3. In which type of anumāna is the inference based on similarities between objects in properties or characteristics?
A) Arthāpatti (Presumption) Anumāna
B) Upamāna (Comparison) Anumāna
C) Dṛṣṭānta (Analogy) Anumāna
D) Anupalabdhi (Non-apprehension) Anumāna

4. Which kind of anumāna infers absence based on non-perception?
A) Pratyakṣa (Perception) Anumāna
B) Śābdabodha (Verbal Testimony) Anumāna
C) Anumiti (Inference) Anumāna
D) Anupalabdhi (Non-apprehension) Anumāna

5. Anumiti (Inference) Anumāna is based on:
A) Direct sensory perception
B) Logical reasoning and deduction
C) Scriptural texts or sacred scriptures
D) Testimony or expertise of reliable authorities

6. Which field of application does Social Sciences Anumāna primarily deal with?
A) Legal
B) Philosophical
C) Physical Sciences
D) Social Sciences

7. What is the aim of Negative Anumāna?
A) To affirm the existence of something
B) To negate the existence of something
C) To infer abstract concepts and philosophical truths
D) To draw legal conclusions and interpretations

8. Which type of Anumāna draws conclusions based on repeated observations, establishing generalizations?
A) Upamāna (Comparison) Anumāna
B) Vyāpti (Universal) Anumāna
C) Arthāpatti (Presumption) Anumāna
D) Anupalabdhi (Non-apprehension) Anumāna

9. In Śāstra (Scriptural) Anumāna, what is the basis for drawing conclusions?
A) Scientific principles and observations
B) Scriptural texts or sacred scriptures
C) Logical reasoning and deduction
D) Testimony or expertise of reliable authorities

10. What does the conclusion of anumāna represent?
A) The evidence supporting the proposition
B) The logical connection between the reason and specific instances
C) The logical consequence or generalization based on evidence and reasoning
D) The application of the hetu to the examples provided in the udāharaṇa

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