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Open Access- Keynotes

  • Open Access: A Definition:

    • Open access is a set of principles and practices that make research outputs available online, free of charge and without barriers.
    • This includes peer-reviewed research literature, as well as other forms of published research output.
  • Models of Open Access Publishing:

    • There are different models of open access publishing, including gold, green, hybrid, bronze, diamond/platinum, and black OA.
    • Each model has its own characteristics and funding models.
  • Gold OA:

    • In the gold OA model, the publisher makes all articles and related content available for free immediately on the journal's website.
    • Many gold OA publishers charge an article processing charge (APC), which is typically paid through institutional or grant funding.
  • Green OA:

    • Self-archiving by authors is permitted under green OA.
    • Green OA is gratis for the author, and some publishers may charge a fee for an additional service.
  • Hybrid OA:

    • Hybrid open-access journals contain a mixture of open access articles and closed access articles.
    • Hybrid OA generally costs more than gold OA and can offer a lower quality of service.
  • Diamond/Platinum OA:

    • Journals that publish open access without charging authors article processing charges are sometimes referred to as diamond or platinum OA.
    • Such publishers often require funding from external sources such as the sale of advertisements, academic institutions, learned societies, philanthropists or government grants.
  • Black OA:

    • Black open access refers to the unauthorized digital copying of paywalled literature.
    • This has been done via existing social media sites as well as dedicated sites.
  • Licenses:

    • The most common licenses used in open access publishing are Creative Commons.
    • Retention of copyright by authors can support academic freedoms by enabling greater control of the work or licensing agreements.
  • Open Access Publication:

    • Open access publication allows readers to access articles for free, and there are various financial models used to cover costs.
    • Commercial publishers and dedicated open-access publishers are some of the sources of funding for open access.
  • Advantages and Disadvantages:

    • Open access has generated considerable discussion amongst stakeholders and concerned communities.
    • Existing publishers have reacted differently to open access journal publishing, ranging from moving with enthusiasm to active lobbying against open access proposals.
  • Article Processing Charges:

    • Some open access journals generate revenue by charging publication fees to make the work openly available at the time of publication.
    • Charges typically range from $1,000–$3,000 but can be under $10 or over $5,000.
    • APCs vary greatly depending on subject and region and are most common in scientific and medical journals.
    • Hybrid OA generally costs more than gold OA and can offer a lower quality of service.
  • Subsidized or No-Fee:

    • No-fee open access journals do not charge either readers or authors and use a variety of business models.
    • Subsidizing sources range from universities, libraries, and museums to foundations, societies, or government agencies.
    • Estimates of prevalence vary, but approximately 10,000 journals without APC are listed in DOAJ and the Free Journal Network.
  • Preprint Use:

    • A preprint is typically a version of a research paper that is shared on an online platform prior to, or during, a formal peer review process.
    • Preprint platforms have become popular due to the increasing drive towards open access publishing and can be publisher- or community-led.
  • Archiving:

    • The green route to OA refers to author self-archiving, in which a version of the article is posted online to an institutional and/or subject repository.
    • Some publishers require an embargo period before deposition in public repositories, arguing that immediate self-archiving risks loss of subscription income.
    • Embargoes are imposed by between 20 and 40% of journals, during which time an article is paywalled before permitting self-archiving or releasing a free-to-read version.
  • Embargo Periods:

    • Embargo periods typically vary from 6–12 months in STEM and >12 months in humanities, arts, and social sciences.
    • Embargo-free self-archiving has not been shown to affect subscription revenue, and tends to increase readership and citations.
    • Plan S includes zero-length embargoes on self-archiving as a key principle.
  • Motivations:

    • Open access publishing reform has been sought and provided worldwide by researchers when the possibility itself was opened by the advent of Internet and the World Wide Web.
    • The open access movement is motivated by the problems of social inequality caused by restricting access to academic research.
    • Lower costs for research in academia and industry have been claimed in the Budapest Open Access Initiative.
  • Open access extends research reach:

    • Open access articles can be read by anyone, including professionals, researchers, journalists, politicians, and interested laypeople.
    • A 2008 study revealed that mental health professionals are twice as likely to read a relevant article if it is freely available.
  • Research funders and universities support open access:

    • Research funders are beginning to expect open access to the research they support, with many adopting open-access mandates.
    • Universities are providing institutional repositories in which their researchers can deposit their published articles.
  • Libraries and librarians are active advocates of open access:

    • Librarians believe that open access promises to remove both the price and permission barriers that undermine library efforts to provide access to scholarship.
    • Many libraries provide publishing or hosting services for open access journals.
  • The public benefits from open access:

    • Advocacy groups argue that most scientific research is paid for by taxpayers through government grants, who have a right to access the results of what they have funded.
    • Patients benefit when their doctor and other health care professionals have access to the latest research.
  • Open access is important for low-income countries:

    • Scientists, health care professionals, and institutions in developing nations often do not have the capital necessary to access scholarly literature.
    • Many open access projects involve international collaboration.
  • Extent of open access:

    • Roughly 20% of the total number of peer-reviewed articles published in 2008 could be found openly accessible.
    • As of February 2019, over 12,500 open access journals are listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals.
  • Gold open access vs green open access:

    • A 2017 study by the Max Planck Society put the share of gold access articles in pure open access journals at around 13 percent of total research papers.
    • In 2018, over 700,000 articles were published in gold open access in the world, of which 42% was in journals with no author-paid fees.
  • History of open access:

    • Various studies have investigated the extent of open access.
    • In 2009, there were approximately 4,800 active open access journals, publishing around 190,000 articles.
  • Open Access Publishing:

    • Open Access publishing varies significantly from publisher to publisher, with some non-profit publishers having the largest percentage of OA publications.
    • The increase in OA percentage for articles published before ca. 1923 is related to the expiration of a 100 year copyright term.
    • Over 4,500 institutional and cross-institutional repositories have been registered in the Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR).
  • Article Impact:

    • Open Access articles are typically used, cited, applied and built upon more often than equivalent articles requiring subscriptions.
    • Some professional organizations encourage the use of Open Access to enlarge the reservoir of freely available primary material.
    • Readership of Open Access articles is higher in demographics that typically lack access to subscription journals.
  • Citation Rate:

    • Open Access articles are typically cited more often than equivalent articles requiring subscriptions.
    • Citation advantage is most pronounced in Open Access articles in hybrid journals and with articles deposited in green OA repositories.
    • Citation advantage increases the longer an article has been published.
  • Alt-metrics:

    • Open Access articles are more referenced in blogs, on Twitter, and on English Wikipedia.
    • Initial studies suggest that the Open Access advantage in altmetrics may be smaller than the advantage in academic citations.
  • Journal Impact Factor:

    • Journal impact factor (JIF) measures the average number of citations of articles in a journal over a two-year window.
    • In subscription journals, impact factor correlates with overall citation count, however this correlation is not observed in gold OA journals.
    • Open Access initiatives typically call for fundamental changes in the scholarly communication system.
  • Peer Review Processes:

    • The rise of Open Access publishing has given rise to experimentation in technologies and processes for peer review.
    • Increased transparency of academic quality control processes makes audit of the academic record easier.
    • Major criticisms of the influence of Open Access on peer review have included that peer review standards may fall and reviewers may self-censor if their identity is open.
  • Predatory Publishing:

    • Predatory publishers present themselves as academic journals but use lax or no peer review processes coupled with aggressive advertising in order to generate revenue from article processing charges from authors.
    • OA publishers aim to ensure quality via auditing by registries such as DOAJ, OASPA and SciELO and comply to a standardised set of conditions.
    • Increased transparency of the peer review and publication process has been proposed as a way to combat predatory journal practices.
  • Open Irony:

    • Open irony refers to the situation where a scholarly journal article advocates open access but the article itself is only accessible by paying a fee to the journal publisher to read the article.
    • This has been noted in many fields, with more than 20 examples appearing since around 2010.
    • The Open Access Irony award has been proposed to publicly humiliate journals that publish these kinds of papers.
  • Restricted access to public scientific knowledge is slowing scientific progress:

    • Open access repositories like DOAJ and PMC exist for open access articles and journals
    • Preprint servers like ResearchPreprints host articles that have not yet been reviewed as open access copies
  • Uneven coverage of journals in major commercial citation index databases has strong effects on evaluating researchers and institutions:

    • There are not currently equal, comprehensive, multi-lingual, open source or non-commercial digital infrastructures
    • Open access aggregators like ROAD and SHERPA/RoMEO list open access journals and publishers
  • Most gold open access journal articles are distributed via the World Wide Web:

    • Access to online content requires Internet access, which presents physical and sometimes financial barriers to access
    • Open access articles can be found with a web search or using specialized search engines like Google Scholar
  • Many universities, research institutions and research funders have adopted mandates requiring their researchers to make their research publications open access:

    • Research Councils UK spent nearly £60m on supporting their open access mandate between 2013 and 2016
    • Tools like SWORD can help authors manage sharing between repositories
  • Compliance rates with voluntary open access policies remain low:

    • More successful outcomes are achieved by policies that are compulsory and more specific
    • Google Scholar started tracking and indicating compliance with funders' open-access mandates
  • Gender inequality still exists in the modern system of scientific publishing:

    • Open access publishing can be a tool to help female researchers increase their publications' visibility and measure impact
    • OA publishing is suggested to be advantageous in terms of citation number compared to non-OA publishing
  • OA publishing increases female researchers' productivity:

    • With proper support and funding, OA publishing has been shown to increase female researchers' productivity.
    • Factors such as a supportive system play a role in female researchers' choice of where to publish their articles.
  • High-income countries dominate OA publishing:

    • A 2022 study found that most OA articles were written by authors in high-income countries.
    • There were no articles in Mirror journals by authors in low-income countries.
    • This exclusion from publishing in the same journals is an irony of open access.
  • List of countries with OA publishing:

    • Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine have OA publishing.
    • This list is not exhaustive.
  • Related topics:

    • Access to knowledge movement, Altmetrics, Copyright policies of academic publishers, Freedom of information, Guerilla Open Access, List of open access journals, Open Access Button, Open access monograph, Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, Open Access Week, Open data, Open educational resources, Open government, Predatory open access publishing, Right to Internet access, Category:Open access journals, Category:Open access by country, Category:Publication management software.
  • Notes:

    • SHERPA/RoMEO is a database.
    • The Leiden Manifesto for Research Metrics was published in 2015.
    • Plan S implementation guidelines were published in February 2019.
    • Publications in journals listed in the WoS have a large effect on the UK Research Excellence Framework.
    • Bibliographic data from Scopus represents more than 36% of assessment criteria in THE rankings.
  • Introduction to Open Access Publishing:

    • Open access publishing has become a popular topic in the academic world.
    • It is a way to make research more accessible to the public and to other researchers.
  • Types of Open Access Publishing:

    • There are different types of open access publishing, including gold, green, and black open access.
    • Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages.
  • Diamond and Platinum Open Access:

    • Diamond and platinum open access are newer forms of open access publishing.
    • They offer a way to publish research without charging authors or readers.
  • Sci-Hub and Piracy:

    • Sci-Hub is a controversial website that provides free access to academic articles.
    • It has been accused of piracy and copyright infringement.
  • FAIR Principles:

    • The FAIR principles are a set of guidelines for scientific data management and stewardship.
    • They aim to make research data more findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable.
  • Funder Open Access Platforms:

    • Funder open access platforms are a new way for funders to support open access publishing.
    • They offer a way for researchers to publish their work without paying fees.
  • Effectiveness of Open Access Mandates:

    • Open access mandates have been implemented by some institutions and funders.
    • Studies have shown that they can be effective in increasing open access publishing.
  • Future of Open Access Publishing:

    • The future of open access publishing is uncertain.
    • However, it is clear that it will continue to be an important topic in the academic world.
  • The Latin American Initiative for Scholarly Communication:

    • AmeliCA is a non-commercial, academic-led initiative to develop a cooperative system of scholarly communication in Latin America.
    • It aims to promote open access to research and reduce the dependence on commercial publishers.
  • The Growth of Open Access Publishing:

    • Open access publishing in geochemistry has grown significantly in recent years.
    • This growth is attributed to the increasing availability of open access journals and the benefits they offer.
  • Copyright and Ownership of Scientific Papers:

    • There is ongoing debate about who should own scientific papers.
    • Some argue that ownership should be with the authors, while others argue that it should be with the publishers.
  • The Importance of Full Open Access:

    • Full open access is important for promoting academic freedom and ensuring that research is accessible to all.
    • It also helps to increase the visibility and impact of research.
  • Creative Commons Licenses:

    • Creative Commons licenses are an important tool for promoting open access.
    • They allow authors to retain ownership of their work while making it available to others.
  • The Changing Landscape of Academic Publishing:

    • The landscape of academic publishing is changing rapidly, with new models and approaches emerging.
    • This includes the rise of open access publishing and the development of new business models.
  • Article Processing Charges:

    • Article processing charges (APCs) are a common way for open access journals to cover their costs.
    • However, there is ongoing debate about the fairness and transparency of APCs.
  • The Future of Open Access Publishing:

    • The future of open access publishing is likely to be shaped by a range of factors, including changing funding models and new technologies.
    • However, the importance of open access for promoting academic freedom and increasing the impact of research is likely to remain a key focus.
  • Introduction:

    • The article discusses the necessary large-scale transformation to open access in scholarly publishing.
    • It highlights the challenges and opportunities of open access and the need for a new business model.
  • Hybrid Open Access:

    • Hybrid open access is a growing model that combines subscription-based and open access publishing.
    • The article discusses the total cost of publication in a hybrid open-access environment and institutional approaches to funding journal article-processing charges.
  • Affordability of Open Access:

    • The article argues that current open access models do not work and that internet-era transformation of scholarly communications is needed.
    • It discusses the international disparities in open access practices in the Earth Sciences and the need for affordable open access.
  • New Models of Open Access:

    • The article discusses new models of open access, such as diamond open access and no-fee open-access journals.
    • It also highlights the Free Journal Network, a community-controlled open access publishing model.
  • EU's Open Access Plan:

    • The article discusses the EU's open access plan and its potential impact on scholarly publishing.
    • It also highlights the need for a reality check on author access to open access publishing.
  • Preprints:

    • The article discusses the evolving preprint landscape and the need for re-imagining metrics and infrastructures.
    • It also highlights the importance of preprints in scholarly communication and the need for talking about preprints.
  • Green Open Access:

    • The article discusses green open access policies of scholarly journal publishers and the high-impact category of delayed open access.
    • It also highlights the importance of open access self-archiving and the post-embargo open access citation advantage.
  • Conclusion:

    • The article concludes that open access is a necessary transformation in scholarly publishing.
    • It highlights the need for new business models and the importance of affordability, new models of open access, and preprints.
  • Global scientific community commits to sharing data on Zika:

    • The global scientific community has committed to sharing data on the Zika virus.
    • This commitment was made by Wellcome, a global charitable foundation, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
  • Open Access:

    • Open Access is a movement that aims to make research freely available to everyone.
    • It is based on the idea that research should be freely available to anyone who wants to read it, without any barriers or restrictions.
  • Benefits of Open Access:

    • Open Access has many benefits, including increased visibility and impact of research, faster dissemination of research findings, and increased collaboration and innovation.
    • It also helps to address issues of inequality and access to information, particularly in developing countries.
  • Open Access Journals:

    • Open Access Journals are scholarly journals that are freely available online.
    • They are often funded by universities, research institutions, or governments, and are run by editorial boards made up of experts in the field.
  • Open Access Policies:

    • Many universities and research institutions have adopted Open Access policies, which require researchers to make their work freely available online.
    • These policies are often supported by funding agencies, which require researchers to make their work freely available in order to receive funding.
  • Open Access Organizations:

    • There are many organizations that support Open Access, including the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC), the Coalition of Open Access Policy Institutions (COAPI), and the Australian Open Access Support Group (AOASG).
    • These organizations work to promote Open Access and provide resources and support to researchers and institutions.
  • Criticism of Open Access:

    • Critics of Open Access argue that it can lead to a decline in the quality of research, as well as a loss of revenue for publishers.
    • They also argue that Open Access can be difficult to implement, particularly for smaller publishers and journals.
  • Conclusion:

    • Open Access is a growing movement that aims to make research freely available to everyone.
    • It has many benefits, including increased visibility and impact of research, faster dissemination of research findings, and increased collaboration and innovation.
  • Open Access Articles Prevalence and Impact:

    • A large-scale analysis of the prevalence and impact of Open Access articles was conducted by Piwowar et al. in 2018.
    • The study found that Open Access articles have a citation advantage over non-Open Access articles.
  • Open Access Policies:

    • Open access policies are becoming more prevalent, with some institutions transitioning to open access.
    • The impact of open access policies on research institutions is being evaluated.
  • Open Access Journals:

    • There are many innovative features in scholarly open access journals.
    • The Directory of Open Access Journals provides a comprehensive list of open access journals.
  • Open Access Repositories:

    • The Registry of Open Access Repositories provides a list of open access repositories.
    • Open access repositories can help researchers succeed by increasing readership and citations.
  • Citation Advantage of Open Access:

    • Open access articles have a citation advantage over non-Open Access articles.
    • Studies have shown that open access articles have increased readership and citations.
  • Social Media Attention:

    • Open access articles have been found to have increased social media attention.
    • Wikipedia can help amplify the impact of open access articles.
  • Funding for Open Access:

    • A study has calculated a redeployment of funds in open access.
    • Maximising the return on public investment in research through open access has been advocated.
  • Call to Action:

    • There is a call to action for mathematicians to support open access.
    • Researchers can bank on citation analysis to support open access.
  • Open Access and its societal impact:

    • Open Access (OA) is a movement that aims to make research articles freely available to everyone, without any paywalls or subscription fees.
    • OA has been shown to have a positive impact on society, as it allows for greater access to scientific knowledge and promotes collaboration among researchers.
  • The benefits of Open Access:

    • Studies have shown that OA articles are cited more frequently than articles published in traditional subscription-based journals.
    • OA can also lead to increased visibility and impact for researchers, as well as greater public engagement with scientific research.
  • The Open Access citation advantage:

    • The Open Access citation advantage refers to the increased citation rates of OA articles compared to articles published in traditional subscription-based journals.
    • Several studies have confirmed the existence of the Open Access citation advantage, although the size of the advantage varies depending on the discipline and other factors.
  • The impact of Open Access on altmetrics:

    • Altmetrics are alternative metrics that measure the impact of research articles beyond traditional citation counts.
    • Studies have shown that OA articles tend to receive higher altmetric scores than articles published in traditional subscription-based journals.
  • Critiques of the Journal Impact Factor:

    • The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is a metric that measures the average number of citations received by articles published in a particular journal.
    • Critics argue that the JIF is a flawed metric that incentivizes researchers to publish in high-impact journals at the expense of other important factors, such as the quality and relevance of their research.
  • The role of peer review in scholarly publishing:

    • Peer review is a process by which experts in a particular field evaluate the quality and validity of research articles before they are published.
    • While peer review is an important part of scholarly publishing, it is not without its flaws, and there is ongoing debate about how to improve the process.
  • The future of scholarly publishing:

    • The rise of Open Access and other alternative publishing models has led to significant changes in the scholarly publishing landscape.
    • As the field continues to evolve, it is likely that we will see further experimentation with new models and technologies for disseminating scientific knowledge.
  • Conclusion:

    • Open Access has the potential to transform the way we share and access scientific knowledge, and has already had a significant impact on the scholarly publishing landscape.
    • While there are still challenges to be addressed, the future looks bright for Open Access and other innovative approaches to scholarly publishing.
  • Peer review innovations:

    • Emergent and future innovations in peer review are being explored by researchers from a multi-disciplinary perspective.
    • The state of the art in peer review is being studied to improve the process.
  • Preprints in life sciences:

    • Technical and social issues are influencing the adoption of preprints in the life sciences.
    • Preprints are being used to share research findings before peer review.
  • Reproducible science:

    • A manifesto for reproducible science has been proposed to improve the reliability of research.
    • A layered framework for considering open science practices has been developed.
  • Open science:

    • Open science practices are being used to help researchers succeed.
    • Open access and subscription journals are being compared for peer review quality and transparency.
  • Reliable novelty:

    • New research findings should not trump true findings.
    • Reliable novelty is important for advancing scientific knowledge.
  • Open-access mega-journals:

    • Open-access mega-journals are being used to publish research findings.
    • These journals have unique characteristics that set them apart from traditional journals.
  • Predatory journals:

    • Predatory journals are a growing concern in scholarly publishing.
    • There is no clear definition or defense against predatory journals.
  • Hijacked journals:

    • Hijacked journals are another emerging challenge for scholarly publishing.
    • These journals are being taken over by fraudulent publishers.
  • Predatory publishing is a threat to academic integrity:

    • Hijacked journals, misleading metrics, and predatory publishing are actual and potential threats to academic integrity and publishing ethics.
    • Predatory publishing is a real threat, as evidenced by a large database study.
  • Identifying predatory publishing:

    • Beall's criteria can be applied to assess the predatory nature of both OA and non-OA library and information science journals.
    • A cross-sectional comparison can be made between 'blacklists' and 'whitelists' to tackle predatory publishing.
  • Open access and preprints:

    • Open access to publications can expand participation in archaeology.
    • Preprints have a role in communicating scientific results.
  • Green and gold roads to open access:

    • The green road to open access involves self-archiving in institutional repositories.
    • The gold road to open access involves publishing in open access journals.
  • Embargo periods and copyright policies:

    • Embargo periods can delay open access to publications.
    • Publisher copyright policies can affect self-archiving in institutional repositories.
  • History of the open access movement:

    • The open access movement began in the 1990s with a proposal for electronic publishing.
    • The Budapest Open Access Initiative in 2002 and the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing in 2003 helped to define the open access movement.
  • Institutional Repositories and Open Access:

    • Institutional repositories have been evaluated in American academe since early 2005.
    • Open access and copyright practices and implications have been studied in relation to institutional repositories.
  • Comparative Analysis of Journal Coverage:

    • Web of Science and Scopus have been compared in terms of journal coverage.
    • PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar have been compared in terms of strengths and weaknesses.
    • Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science have been compared longitudinally and cross-disciplinarily.
  • Auditing Research with Technologies of Distance:

    • Quantitative evaluation dominates in peripheral countries.
    • Research has been audited with technologies of distance.
  • Citation Data and World University Rankings:

    • Clarivate Analytics will provide citation data during REF 2021.
    • The methodology for world university rankings has been established.
  • Inclusive and Collaborative Knowledge Infrastructures:

    • Efforts have been made towards inclusive and collaborative knowledge infrastructures in open science.
  • Open Access Initiatives and Infrastructure:

    • The Budapest Open Access Initiative and Public Knowledge Project have been established.
    • ROAD, BASE, and CORE are search engines for open access content.
    • Open Journal Systems is a platform for open access journals.
    • Scholarly journals using open journal systems have been surveyed.
  • Open Access Policies and Compliance:

    • Recommendations for UK open-access provision policy have been made.
    • RCUK open access block grant analysis has been conducted.
    • Efforts have been made to ensure compliance with funders' open access policies.
    • Gender differences in authorship of critical care literature have been studied.
  • Challenges to Open Access:

    • PRISM is a lobby against open access.
    • Science-journal publishers have taken the fight against open-access policies to Congress.
    • Publishers have criticized new open access bills.
  • Gender and Authorship Structures in Vietnam:

    • A study published in Publications found that there are differences in research abilities based on gender and authorship structures in Vietnam.
    • The study highlights the need for more gender equality in research and publishing.
  • Effect of Article Processing Charges on Author Diversity:

    • A study published in Quantitative Science Studies found that article processing charges can have an impact on the geographic diversity of authors.
    • The study suggests that alternative funding models may be needed to promote diversity in publishing.
  • Open-Access Publishing Fees and Researchers in the Global South:

    • An article in Nature found that open-access publishing fees can deter researchers in the global south.
    • The article suggests that more support is needed to ensure that researchers from all regions have access to open-access publishing.
  • Policy Guidelines for Open Access:

    • UNESCO has published policy guidelines for the development and promotion of open access.
    • The guidelines provide recommendations for governments, institutions, and individuals to promote open access.
  • Development of Open Access Journal Publishing:

    • A study published in PLOS ONE found that open access journal publishing has grown significantly since 1993.
    • The study highlights the importance of open access in promoting research and scholarship.
  • Accessibility, Sustainability, Excellence:

    • The Working Group on Expanding Access to Published Research Findings has published a report on how to expand access to research publications.
    • The report provides recommendations for policymakers, funders, and publishers to promote open access.
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