Rules for Bibliographic Description

1) Write down the impact of the Five Laws in cataloguing.
The five laws of information science justifies cataloguing as it helps in promotion of the use of information (Law 1) by helping every information-user to find his/her information (Law 2) by finding information-users for every piece of information (Law 3) by providing easy and instant access to save the time of the information-user (Law 4) and by overcoming all the barriers mostly created by the continuous growth of the universe of information (Law 5).

2) Who had designed the most comprehensive set of rules for cataloguing?
In 1876, Charles Ammi Cutter published ‘Rules for a Dictionary Catalog’, possibly the most comprehensive set of rules produced by any individual for the first time. Cutter’s rules set out the first principles of cataloguing, and included a statement of the objectives of the catalogue. The code covered rules for dictionary catalogues including both entry (for authors, titles, subjects, and form headings), and description.

3) How many principles are accepted as Paris principle ?
The twelve principles are accepted. The subject matters of these principles are: (1) the choice and form of headings; (2) functions of the catalogue; (3) structure of the catalogue; (4) kinds of entry; (5) use of multiple entries; (6) function of different kinds of entry; (7) choice of uniform heading; (8) single personal author; (9) entry under corporate bodies; (10) multiple authorship; (11) works entered under title; (12) entry word for personal names.

4) What are the parts of North American/ British editions AACR ?
Both the British and North American texts of AACR contained three parts:
Part I: Entry and Heading – Based on the Paris Principles
Part II: Description – Consisted of revised rules.
Part III: Non-book materials – Contained rules for both entry and description of non-book materials.

5) What are ISBDs for different documents?
International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) are:
ISBD(G) – General
ISBD(CM) – Cartographic Materials
ISBD(CR) – Continuing Resources (old name ISBD(S) - Serials)
ISBD(ER) – Electronic Resources (old name ISBD(CF)-Computer files)
ISBD(M) – Monographs
ISBD(NBM) – Non-book Materials.

6) What are the objectives ISBD(G)?
The main objectives of ISBDs are : (i) making records interchangeable - this means records produced in one country can be easily accepted in library catalogues or other bibliographic lists in any other country; (ii) interpretation of records – this means records produced for users of one language can be
interpreted by users of other languages so that overcoming is language barriers is overcome; and (iii) conversion of bibliographic records – this means conversion to machine-readable form be easier.

7) Who were the editors of AACR2 1978?
The ‘Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second edition’ (AACR2) was published in one version in 1978 under the editorship of Michael Gorman of the British Library, and Paul W. Winkler of the Library of Congress.

8) What are the parts of AACR2 1978?
AACR2, 1978 was divided into two parts:
Part I Description
– Based on the ISBD(G) framework.
– Included a general chapter (chapter 1), and chapters for individual formats,
including new chapters for machine-readable data files (chapter 9) and
three-dimensional artifacts (chapter 10).
– The rules for non-book materials were based on alternative codes that
were published in the 1970s.
Part II, Entry and Heading
– Rules were brought more closely into line with the Paris Principles.

9) What is the common structure in second level of description?
The bibliographic description is divided into eight areas viz. (1) Title and statement of responsibility, (2) Edition, (3) Material (or type of publication) specific details, (4) Publication distribution, etc., (5) Physical description, (6) Series, (7) Note, (8) Standard number and terms of availability. Second
Level of description is as:
Title proper [general material designation] = parallel title : other title information / first statement of responsibility ; each subsequent statementof responsibility. – Edition statement / first statement of responsibility relating to the edition. – Material (or type of publication) specific details.
– First place of publication, etc. : first publisher, etc., date of publication,
etc. – Extent of item : other physical details ; dimensions. – (Title proper
of series / statement of responsibility relating to series, ISSN of series ;
numbering within the series. Title of sub series, ISSN of sub series ;
numbering within sub series) . – Note(s). – Standard number.

10) What are the prescribed sources of information for electronic resource?

11) What do you mean by direct and remote access?
For cataloguing purpose, electronic resources may be treated in one of two ways depending on whether access is direct (local) or remote (networked). Direct access is understood to mean that a physical carrier can be described. Such a carrier (e.g., disc/disk, cassette, cartridge, etc.) must be inserted into a computerised device or into a peripheral attached to a computerised device. Remote access (online) is understood to mean that no physical carrier can be handled. Remote access can only be provided by use of an input/ output device either connected to a computer system or by use of resources stored in a hard disk or other storage device that are connected over a network.

12) What is the rule for type and extent of resource area?
For Electronic Resources, the area of type and extent of resource is preceded by a full stop-space-dash-space (. – ). This area is used in the description of electronic resources as prescribed in the AACR2 2002. Each statement of extent (e.g., number of files) is enclosed within parentheses. The statement of the number of records or size of files, etc. are preceded by a colon if that follows the statement of number of files. For Example, Electronic data (1 file : 20 records) Electronic program (2 files : 4300, 1250 bytes)


Access Point : A name, term, code or other indexed characteristic of an authority or bibliographic record that helps make the record searchable and identifiable. For example, titles, names, and subjects are access points.
Antiquarian Book : An old and ‘rare’ book, preferably 100 years old or more, similar to an antique. With common usage the term has come to mean any book that is outof-print, old, rare, scarce - virtually any book that is not a new or in-print book.
Author : The person, persons, or corporate body responsible for the artistic or intellectual content of a work. Usually distinguished from an editor, translator, compiler, although these may be regarded as
authors for purposes of cataloguing.
Authority Record : A collection of information about one name, uniform title, or topical term heading. An authority record can contain the established form of heading, see from references, see also from references, and notes.
Bibliographic Record : Details about a item that are sufficient to identify it for the purpose of retrieval are placed in a specific format that describes one item in a collection. May include author, title, publisher, publication location, edition, series titles, and notes.
Catalogue Code : A set of rules for guidance of cataloguers in preparing entries for catalogues so as to ensure uniformity in treatment, Such codes may include rules for subject cataloguing and for filing and arranging entries.
Document Type : Term that identifies the format, genre, or medium used to produce or classify a document. Valid values will vary by database. Use the advanced or expert search screens to select a valid document type from the drop-down menu.
International Standard : A unique identification number assigned to a work Book Number (ISBN) by its publisher. Each ISBN has ten characters. The tenth character is a check character that may be a number or the letter X. In printed form, the ISBN has three hyphens. Hyphens are omitted in online records.
International Standard : A unique identification number assigned to a serial Serial Number (ISSN) through the ISSN Network. Each ISSN has eight characters. The eighth character is a check character that may be a number or the letter X. A hyphen follows the fourth character.
Label : Any paper, plastic, etc. permanently affixed to a physical carrier or information printed or embossed directly onto the physical carrier by the publisher, creator, etc. of the resource, as opposed to those on the container or to any label added locally.
Liturgical Works : Fixed form of public worship used in churches.
Main Entry : The entry determined by AACR2 to be the primary access point for the item.
Prussian Instructions : The German cataloguing rules of an English translation was published by the University of Michigan Press in 1938.

Source: IGNOU Study Material

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