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1) Write short note on Record Format.
Record format is the arrangement of data in the record. It refers to the structure, content and coding of the record. Structure provides the framework for fields, suitability for machine processing keeping in view the information transfer. Content refers to the data contained in the record in various (both
fixed as well as variable) fields. Coding is the digital representation of the characters.

2) Distinguish between fixed field and variable field in a record
In the record the fixed field refers to the length of the field. It refers to the number of characters, which a field occupies. The length of a fixed field is predefined and it cannot accommodate data more than the length specified earlier. Whereas in the case of a variable field, the length of the field can be varied depending upon the size of the data.

3) How ISBD helps in the standardisation of bibliographic records?
ISBD helps in the standardisation of bibliographic records, as it:
i) Facilitates records from various sources interchangeable.
ii) Assists in the interpretation of records across language barriers.
iii) Assists in the conversion of bibliographic records to machine-readable form.

4) What are the sections of a MARC record?
A typical MARC record consists of three main sections: the leader, the directory, and the variable fields.

  • The leader consists of data elements that contain coded values and are identified by relative character position. It is also called as Record label in CCF and UNIMARC. Data elements in this section define parameters for processing the record. It is fixed in length (24 characters) and occurs at the beginning of each MARC record.
  • The directory contains the tag, starting location, and length of each field within the record. The length of the directory entry is defined in the entry map elements in Leader/20-23. In the MARC21 formats, the length of a directory entry is 12 characters, while in CCF it is 14 characters where character 13th and 14th are Segment Identifier and Occurrence Identifier. The directory ends with a field terminator character.
  • The data content of a record is divided into variable fields. The MARC21 format distinguishes two types of variable fields: variable control fields and variable data fields.

5) Explain the significance of Common Communication Format (CCF)
The importance of CCF is that it provides a method for recording a number of mandatory and optional data elements. CCF helps in exchange of records between two or more computerized systems. CCF also converts the data in its processing format into the common format.

Coding : The digital representation of the characters.
Content : It refers to tags, indicators, sub-field codes, occurrence identifiers, etc.
Designator : which describe or identify some attribute of a data element or group of data element.
Fixed Field : A field which has predetermined length and it cannot accommodate more characters than the specified earlier.
Format : Arrangement or presentation of data in the record
MARC : A machine-readable catalogue for the purpose of communicating bibliographic information to large number of libraries.
Variable Field : A field which can be extended to accommodate longer data as per requirement.

Source: IGNOU Study Material

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