UGC NET December 2023 Paper 2 Library Science (91-100)

Read the following passage and answer the questions (1-5) :
India has a long and venerable history in the field of higher education. In ancient times, the country was known to have been home to the oldest formal universities in world. These ancient universities were rich with library of contemporary reading materials like manuscripts. The nature of higher education in ancient India was considered as religious. The basic religions were Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Religion based education in ancient India had a outstanding role in creating, transforming and transmitting knowledge to the people in society. The more striking of these ancient universities were Takshashila (Now in Pakistan), Nalanda (in the modern state of Bihar) and Ujjaini (in modern Madhya Pradesh). These were in the early times of Indian Civilization and attracted students from all parts of India, Central Asia, China and South East Asia. The Hindu Buddhist University of Takshashila, the oldest one, was probably established in 6 century BC. The role of Takshashila as a knowledge centre grew stronger day by day for nurturing students. Unfortunately, Takshashila University was destroyed by the White Huns (Ephthalites) around 460 AD. In 1193, Nalanda University and its library with 9 million manuscripts was sacked and burnt and totally destroyed by Bakhtiyar Khilji. This event not only ended the University, but was also followed by a rapid decline in the practice of Buddhism in India. In 1235, Sultan Iltutmish completely destroyed Ujjaini, a major knowledge centre for Mathematics, Literature, Philosophy and Astronomy. History of higher education in India and its library system had thus begun its journey quite with a bang, which had to face temporary hindrance in the form of outside invasion. It is significant that at exactly the same time, half way across the world, Oxford University was being established. The libraries of Institutions of higher education are recognised as a most important agency of social change involved in the Human Resource Development of the Country. The socio historical journey of higher education has been started with an ancient system of education in the Vedic period.
In pre British days Hindus and Muslims were educated through Patthsala and Madrassa respectively. The ideas and pedagogical methods of education during the colonial period from 1757 to 1947, were contested terrain. The commercial British East India Company ruled parts of India from 1764 to 1858. In 18 century a few company officials became Scholars of Sanskrit, Persian and Tamil and promoted ‘Oriental’ learning which was classical, devotic learning in indigenous languages. However, they were outnumbered by Anglicists, those who denegrated ‘Oriental’ learning and advocated the introduction of institutions of western learning based upon the British curriculum with English as the medium of instruction. By the early 19 century, when English was made the official language of Government business, British policy promoted a cheap, frickle-down model for colonial education. When the British crown abolished company rule in 1858, Government universities existed at Bombay (Mumbai), Calcutta (Kolkata), and Madras (Chennai); about two thousand students studied at thirteen government colleges in all of British India, and another 30,000 students were in Government Secondary Schools.
1. Which of the following was not practiced in religion-based education in Ancient Indian Universities ?
(1) Jainism
(2) Hinduism
(3) Christianity
(4) Buddhism

2. The higher education and library system of Ancient India had venerable history that :
(1) had faced a kind of impediment in the form of outside invasion
(2) had witnessed attracting students restricted from Indian territory only
(3) had promoted education with the financial support from ephthalities
(4) had witnessed the non-religion based education for Indian students only

3. Which of the following is correct in respect of three universities and their libraries of Ancient India ?
(1)Sultan [tutmish had demolished the Nalanda, Bakhtiyar Khilji had knocked down the Takshashila and White Huns destroyed the Ujjaini
(2)Ujjaini was destroyed by Bakhtiyar Khilji, Nalanda was demolished by White Huns and Takshashila was ruined by Sultan [ltumish
(3)Sultan Iltutmish designed and created Ujjaini, White Huns developed Takshashila and Bakhtiyar khilji established Nalanda
(4)Sultan Itutmish had destroyed Ujjaini, White Huns had destroyed Takshashila and Bakhtiya Khilji had destroyed totally Nalanda

4. Find the correct geographical location of the three universities of Ancient India ?
(1)Nalanda is in the modern state of Madhya Pradesh, Ujjaini is in modern Pakistan and Takshashila is in modern Bihar
(2)Nalanda is in modern Rajasthan, Ujjaini is in modern Chhatisgarh and Takshashila is in Modern Bihar
(3)Nalanda is in modern Bihar, Ujjaini is in modern Madhya pradesh and Takshashila is in Pakistan
(4)Nalanda is in modern Jharkhand, Ujjaini is in modern Uttarakhand and Takshashila is in modern Odisha

5. British policy promoted a cheap model for colonial education in India in nineteenth century.
(1)by introducing an ancient system of Vedic education in the British Curriculum
(2)by nurturing more the nature of the religion based higher education in ancient India.
(3)by making English as the official language for government business in addition to making English as medium of instruction
(4)by establishing Oxford university in UK

Read the following passage and answer the questions (6-10)
Today Internet is possibly the most widely used information source in the world. With an aim to reach Internet to those who are still unreached, several tech farms have come forward with novel ideas. Google Sundar Pichai CEO started experimenting with project Loon, which plans to launch a series of balloons that can help people get connected by beaming Internet signals down to base stations in 2013. One year later, the north-eastern Brazil, it ran its first test, using Long-Term Evolution (LTE), also known as 4 G, to connect a school computer in a rural village to the Internet. And in March 2014, Facebook announced plans to make internet available to regions of the developing world by using drones and an array of low Earth orbiting satellites. Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg also helped to create internetorg, a consortium of companies, working towards the same goal.
(The man who conceived the innovative idea of Outernet is Syed Karim, a library science drop-out and founder CEO of Outernet.) Then came up Outernet Inc., a Chicago based datacast company, being incubated by a New York City- based non-profit organization, the Media Development Investment Fund, with a plan to launch hundreds of low-cost miniature satellites, known as cubesats (cube satellites), into orbit around the Earth to create the Outernet, a wireless connection to the web available for free to every person in the world. Each cubesat receives data from a network of ground stations around the world and transmits this information ona loop until new information is received. This means using the Outernet will be more like watching a programme broadcast on TV. Outernet users will build a priority list for the information they want and make suggestions for new contents. In addition to providing free access, the Outernet will also be universally available, allowing people to bypass censorship laws prevalent in many countries. The Outernet, as envisioned, would effectively be a one-way connection data would flow from feeders to the sattellites which would broadcast to all below. As such, it would not provide e-mail or other chat facilities. But Internet-less users would be able to request for specific content by sending its operators an SMS text message or letter. Net-connected organizations can, however, pay a free to have their own materials added to broadcasts at specific times, providing a source of revenue.
6. Who among the following had conceived the innovative idea of outernet ?
(1) Mark Zukerberg
(2) Syed Karim
(3) Sundar Pichai
(4) Harlan Mandel

7. The outernet is envisioned to be effective for internet-less users.
(1) by establishing a two way realtime connection effectively
(2) by providing e-mail or other chat facilities as such
(3) by sending an SMS text message or a letter to its operators to request for specific content
(4) by establishing whatsapp connection

8. Which of the following is an initiative to provide internet facilities to the people who are unable to derive the benefit of it ?
(1) A plan of google to make internet available to regions of the developing world by using drones
(2) A plan to connect a school computer in a rural village by Media Development Investment Fund
(3) An initiative to launch computers more in numbers in different regions
(4) An initiative of google that plans to launch a series of balloons to help people get connected by beaming internet signals down to base station

9. The plan of launching hundreds of low cost miniature satellites that would create outernet is to
(1) establish a wireless connection to the web available for free to every person in the world
(2) use Long Term Evolution (LTE) to connect computers of rural village
(3) find Google's digitisation to provide access to millions of books
(4) scan millions of books and send them using e-mail facilities

10. Which of the following is true as far as functionalities of cubesats is concerned ?
(1) Outernet cubesat functions just opposite to watching a broadcast in television
(2) Outernet users need not to build a priority list of their desired information
(3) Data are received from a network of a ground station and transmitted on a loop until new information is received
(4) Outernet will not be available universally by passing censorship laws prevalent in many countries

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