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UGC NET June 2019 Paper 2 Library Science (91-100)


Direction (Q.1 to 5) : Read the passage given below and answer the question based on your understanding of the passage :
When you travel around the world, you see tremendous variation in the standard of living. The average income in a rich country, such as the United States, Japan, or Germany, is more than ten times the average income in a poor country, such as India, Indonesia, or Nigeria. These large differences in income are reflected in large differences in the quality of life. People in richer countries have better nutrition, safer housing, better healthcare, and longer life expectancy as well as more automobiles, more telephones, and more televisions. Even within a country, there are large changes in the standard of living over time. In the United States over the past century, average income as measured by real GDP (gross domestic product) per person has grown by about 2 percent per year. Although 2 percent might seem small, this rate of growth implies that average income doubles every 35 years. Because of this growth, most Americans enjoy much greater economic prosperity than did their parents, grandparents, and great grandparents.
Growth rates vary substantially from country to country. In recent history, some East Asian countries, such as Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan, have experienced economic growth of about 7 percent per year; at this rate, average income doubles every 10 years. Over the past two decades, China has enjoyed an even higher rate of growthñabout 12 percent per year, according to some estimates. A country experiencing such rapid growth can, in one generation, go from being among the poorest in the world to being among the richest. By contrast, in some nations in sub-Saharan Africa, average income has been stagnant for many years. Zimbabwe has had one of the worst growth experiences : From 1991 to 2011, income per person fell by a total of 38 percent.
What explains these diverse experiences? How can rich countries maintain their high standard of living? What policies should poor countries pursue to promote more rapid growth and join the developed world? These are among the most important questions in macroeconomics. As the Nobel-Prize-winning economist Robert Lucas put it, "The consequences for human welfare in questions like these are simply staggering : Once one starts to think about them, it is hard to think about anything else."
1. The country which enjoyed a higher rate of growth of 12% per year according to some estimates is
(1) USA
(2) Zimbabwe
(3) Nigeria
(4) China

2. In USA, average income of a person is measured by
(1) average GDP
(2) real GDP
(3) GNP
(4) direct tax index

3. The country which had experienced worst growth from 1991 to 2011 as income per person fell by a total of 38 percent during the above period is
(1) Brazil
(2) Zimbabwe
(3) China
(4) USA

4. The subject domain in which Robert Lucas has acclaimed recognition is
(1) Chemistry
(2) Nuclear Physics
(3) Economics
(4) Agriculture

5. The reason as to why Americans enjoy much greater economic prosperity than did their parents is
(1) growth in average income
(2) better nutrition and health care
(3) growth in govt. jobs
(4) growth in agriculture and its effective reform


Direction (Q.6 to Q.10) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions based on your understanding :
Telecommunications (literally : communications at a distance) are always critical to human society. Even in ancient times, government and military units relied heavily on telecommunications to gather information and to issue orders. The first type was with messengers on foot or on horseback; but the need to convey a short message over a large distance (such as one warming a city of approaching raiders) led to the use of fire and smoke signals. Using signal mirrors to reflect sunlight (heliography)was another effective way of telecommunication. Its first recorded use was in ancient Greece. Signal mirrors were also mentioned in Marco Polo's account of his trip to the Far East. These ancient visual communication technologies are, amazingly enough, digital. Fires and smoke in different configurations would from different codewords. On hills or mountains near Greek cities there were also special personnel for such communications, forming a chain of regenerative repeaters. If fact, fire and smoke signal platforms still dot the Great Wall of China. More interestingly reflectors of lenses equivalent to the amplifiers and antennas we use today, were used to directionally guide the light farther.
Naturally, these early visual communication systems were very tedious to set up and could transmit only several bits of information per hour. A much faster visual communication system was developed just over two centuries ago. In 1793 Claude Chappe of France invented and performed a series of experiments on the concept of 'semaphore telegraph' His system was a series of signalling devices called semaphores, which were mounted on towers, typically spaced 10 km apart. (A semaphore looked like a large human figure with signal flags in both hands). A receiving semaphore operator would transcribe visually, often with the aid of a telegraph became the government telecommunication system in France and spread to other countries, including the United States. The semaphore telegraph was eventually eclipsed by electric telegraphy. Today, only a few remaining streets and landmarks with the name 'Telegraph Hill' remind us of the place of this system in history. Still, visual communication (via Aldis lamps, ship flags, and heliographs) remained an important part of maritime communications well into the twentieth century.
6. What is replaced by amplifiers and antennas in the present scenario?
(1) Regenerative repeaters
(2) Telegraph
(3) Smoke signal
(4) Lenses

7. What is heliography?
(1) Using signal mirror to reflect sunlight
(2) Communication with a messenger on foot or on horseback
(3) Semaphore telegraph
(4) Maritime communication

8. What led the use of fire and smoke signals?
(1) Large message over a short distance
(2) An abridged message to war fighters
(3) Short message over a large distance
(4) Both short and large message over a large distance

9. Heliography was first used in
(1) Ancient Greece
(2) China
(3) France
(4) United States of America

10. Who conducted a series of experiments on 'Semaphore Telegraph'?
(1) Marco polo
(2) Claude Shannon
(3) Claude Chappe
(4) William Franci

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