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UGC NET Preparation Test Series (90 Assertion & Reason Questions)

1. Assertion (A) : A larger chunk of public libraries in India today are in a state of chaos due to lack of adequate government patronage.
Reason (R) : Enactment of rigorous Public Library Law alone can save the Public Libraries from going down the drain and can vitalize and energise to ensure their sustenance.

(A) is false and (R) is true.
(A) is true, but (R) is false.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

2. Assertion (A) : An illiterate does not have an insatiable desire to know or to acquire information as he is intellectually underdeveloped.
Reason (R) : Illiteracy does not bar an illiterate to generate curiosity to know or to become intelligent, as intellectual requires the use of mind, but not emotions or instinct.

(A) is false and (R) is true.
(A) is true, but (R) is false.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

3. Assertion (A) : Digitization of documents is the most viable method for long-term preservation.
Reason (R) : Digital preservation ensures the accessibility and usability of documents forever.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(R) is true, but (A) is false.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

4. Assertion (A) : An open access publishing embargo is a period during which the access to articles is not allowed to the users assuming that immediate open access will hamper their business interest.
Reason (R) : Publishers assume that the users from subscribing institutions won’t visit their journal site.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(R) is true, but (A) is false.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

5. Assertion (A) : Over the past few years, the usage of bound volumes of Journals in Libraries has decreased considerably.
Reason (R) : Availability of electronic journals in large number has led to such decrease.

Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(R) is true, but (A) is false.

6. Assertion (A) : The approach of the Relative Index of DDC, is an alternate to the approach of the Schedules.
Reason (R) : Relative Index does not bring at one place all the related aspects of a subject scattered in the schedules, since its an alphabetical index to the classification (not to page numbers).

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(R) is true, but (A) is false.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
Both (A) and (R) are true.

7. Assertion (A) : RDA is not a ‘content’ standard. Reason (R) : RDA data are being used as the basis for a meta data element set.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.

8. Assertion (A) : Quality is not measured by confirmation to specifications, but by meeting users’ requirements.
Reason (R) : The fulfilment of users’ requirements depends upon the professional attitude of the staff.

Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.

9. Assertion (A) : SDI services are no more in demand by users after growth of internet usage and emergence of W3
Reason (R) : Contemporary analogous systems for SDI services such as alerts, current awareness tools or trackers (eg. RSS feed, TOC alerts, etc) often lead to relevant information needed by users.

Both (A) and (R) are true.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
(R) is false, but (A) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

10. Assertion (A) : Controlled vocabularies are not being used in the traditional way for organising libraries.
Reason (R) : The use of controlled vocabularies is now being extended through social book marking and tagging of images.

Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.

11. Assertion (A) : Citation Indexing is a unique and innovative tool for navigating the research literature.
Reason (R) : Researcher has to depend only on citation indexes for literature search.

Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.

12. Assertion (A) : Library Standards are essential for interaction and collaboration among libraries.
Reason (R) : Z39.50 Protocol virtually has reduced the efforts of both classifier and the cataloguer and hereby made the use of standards vulnerable.

Both (A) and (R) are false.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
(A) is true, but (R) is false.

13. Assertion (A) : In Indian scenario, a larger chunk of Librarians can hardly handle IT related matters, either due to lack of proper infrastructure or adequate training.
Reason (R) : Taking third party help in managing the software through ‘cloud computing’ platform has become inevitable.

Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.

14. Assertion (A) : In the online catalogue, there is a pressing need to limit the number of characters used to describe a resource.
Reason (R) : Abbreviations were not important in the era of card catalogue.

Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.

15. Assertion (A) : When the work is not protected by copyright, plagiarism may occur.
Reason (R) : Plagiarism is the wrongful appropriation of another author’s language, thoughts, ideas or expressions and the representation of them as one’s own.

Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.

16.Assertion (A) : ‘Information Economy’ which is based on the premise that, information has economic value and as such requires an ‘Information Market Place’ in which such value can be exchanged, holds no good in the contemporary information age.
Reason (R) : Information as a valuable resource occupies a slum dwelling in the town of economics, as this economic reality runs counter to the popular and historic notion that, “information is free”.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

17. Assertion (A) : Libraries should serve as a local centre of information and knowledge and be a local gateway to national and global knowledge.
Reason (R) : Libraries must modernize their collection, services and collaborate with other institutions to develop a community-based information system.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

18. Assertion (A) : Some modern users are quite apprehensive about virtual reference service chat.
Reason (R) : They fear negative judgements from librarians and advisors arising from the content of the chat transcript.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

19. Assertion (A) : In recent years, the explosion of information in electronic format has placed a significant burden on the small public libraries.
Reason (R) : E-resources are expensive, both in licensing cost and in the technology needed to support them to which small public libraries can hardly afford.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

20. Assertion (A) : In the digital environment, the University libraries in India need not build their reference collection.
Reason (R) : ‘Question Point’ of OCLC provides a complete virtual reference management system for subscription.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
Both (A) and (R) are true.

21. Assertion (A) : Libraries market their products and services to overcome the problems of under-utilization of their information resources and services.
Reason (R) : Libraries are under-utilized because they do not provide access to electronic resources.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

22. Assertion (A) : In RDA the ‘rule of 3”, to provide upto three authors, is now the main instruction.
Reason (R) : RDA does not encourage access to the names of persons and corporate bodies important to the users.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

23. Assertion (A) : Application of six sigma in library management is a quality programme that improves customers’ experience and lowers costs.
Reason (R) : Six phases of sigma are necessary in all library operations.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

24. Assertion (A) : A library needs to generate a satisfied customer base which is supportive of library programmes.
Reason (R) : If a library’s resources and services are measured upto customer’s expectations, then repeat use cannot be ensured.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

25. Assertion (A) : Podcasting, once an obscure method of spreading information, has become a recognised medium for distributing audio contents – be it corporate or for personal use.
Reason (R) : Podcasts, though similar to radio programs, are primarily audio files which the listeners can play at their convenience, using devices that have become more common than portable broadcast receivers.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

26. Assertion (A) : Open-ended questions are suitable to glean more and candid information from the respondents seeking on a specific aspect.
Reason (R) : Open-ended questions provide an opportunity to go beyond the closed option of ‘yes’ or ‘No’ as it enables to express one’s own ideas more candidly.

Both (A) and (R) are false.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
(A) is true, but (R) is false.

27. Assertion (A) : An information literate generally has the potential to determine the nature and extent of the information needed.
Reason (R) : An information literate can define and articulate the need better than an information illiterate.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

28. Assertion (A) : Majority of State Public Library Acts enacted from 1990s have provision for Library fund with contributions from State and Central Governments.
Reason (R) : Library Cess is inadequate to manage public libraries.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
Both (A) and (R) are true.

29. Assertion (A) : Most of the LIS professionals in India are yet to recognise fully the significance of Web-based OPAC services.
Reason (R) : Although some libraries in India have started to develop their own websites and portals with enhanced features of Web-based OPACs, but none of these libraries are yet to have their library page and lack federated search facilities.

(A) is true, but (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

30. Assertion (A) :Though advocating information literacy has been embedded into the curriculum of Western countries, it is in the "Catching up" phase in India.
Reason (R) :The members of academic libraries are familiar with technologies and do not need training in information literacy.
A is true R is false
A is false R is true
Both A and R are true
Both A and R are false

31.Assertion (A) : Content Analysis is a non-evaluative technique that consolidates the results into a textual representation.
Reason (R) : The products of content analysis provides factual, critical and evaluative information

Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false
(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true

32.Assertion (A) :Impact factor of Indian journals is rising.
Reason (R) :Publication of open access journals is increasing in the country.
A is true R is false
A is false R is true
Both A and R are true
Both A and R are false

33. Assertion (A) : An indexing language is a list of index terms those are acceptable to users.
Reason (R) : An indexing language helps users to translate the queries of natural language.

Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false
(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true

34. Assertion (A) : Open source software permits extensive customization to meet the need of the libraries.
Reason (R) : Source codes are available at no cost in open source software and can be modified.

(A) is true and (R) is false
(R) is true but (A) is false
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false

35. Assertion (A) : Libraries traditionally developed compilation of bibliographies for the bibliographical control of print documents.
Reason (R) : In the electronic environment bibliographic control mechanisms are not properly maintained.
A is true R is false
A is false R is true
A is true R is not correct explanation
Both A and R are false

36. Assertion (A) : Journals listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) refer to Gold path and Green path of open access.
Reason (R) : Gold path and Green path of open access permits any users to read, download, copy, distribute or print the document available on the public Internet

(A) is true and (R) is false
(R) is true but (A) is false
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false

37. Assertion (A) : The vision of LIS profession is to keep track of technologies that influence the information delivery mechanism.
Reason (R) : Value added services will facilitate the higher level of user satisfaction.
A is true R is false
A is false R is true
A and R are true but R is not correct explanation of A
Both A and R are false

38. Assertion (A) : Library and Information Science Degrees of India are not equivalent to the LIS degrees of Western countries.
Reason (R) : Lack of accreditation is one of the barriers for internationalization of LIS education.
A is true R is false
A and R are true
A and R are false
A is false R is true

39. Assertion (A) : No exclusive referralcentre is operational in India.
Reason (R) : There is no demand for referral service.
Both A and R are true
Both A and R are false
A is true but R is false
A is false but R is true

40. Assertion (A) : Reference Section, once the hub of library activities, has lost its charm.
Reason (R) : Electronic databases replaced majority of printed reference works.
Both A and R are true
Both A and R are false
A is true but R is false
A is false but R is true

41. Assertion (A) : Libraries are facing a threat and are bound to disappear.
Reason (R) : Internet and www provide access to ocean of information world wide.
(A) Both (A) and (R) are false
Both (A) and (R) are true
(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true

42. Assertion (A) : Library legislation provides proper governance and management.
Reason (R) : Library legislation ensures free public library service to all irrespective of caste, creed and sex.
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false
(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true

43. Assertion (A) : Indexing periodical retrieves information, which includes brief summary of the articles.
Reason (R) : Indexing periodical provides list of articles along with the titles, authors and other bibliographical details.

Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false
(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true

44. Assertion (A) :The digitization of information and the development of computer networks are posing challenge to copyright.
Reason (R) : Digital technology ermits to create unauthorized, perfect and costless copies.
Both (A) and (R) are true
(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false, but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation

45. Assertion (A) : Formulation of hypotheses is based on assumptions.
Reason (R) : Hypotheses cannot be tested based on objectives of the study.

(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are false
Both (A) and (R) are true

46. Assertion (A) : Delphi Method of research draws opinion from the panel of experts in a research area.
Reason (R) : Opinions expressed by the panel of experts is valuable in formulating inferences.

(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false

47. Assertion (A) : Provision of services inside the library helps in reaching out to the large number of users.
Reason (R) : Library extension services do not cover the internal users of a library

(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false

48. Assertion (A) : Web-opac is a computerised library catalogue available to the patrons on-line
Reason (R) : It can be searched by the users with in the four walls of the library only.

(A) is true, but (R) is false
(A) is false, but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false

49. Assertion (A) : ISBDs were derived by Unesco
Reason (R) : They are the standards for all types of bibliographic activities

(A) is false but (R) is true
(A) is true, but (R) is false
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false

50. Assertion (A) : Libraries are changing in the wake of emerging ICT environment.
Reason (R) : Libraries are adopting new competencies to operate services in the environment of information super highway.

(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are false
Both (A) and (R) are true

51. Assertion (A) : Loose Assemblage is the process of linking together the different classes.
Reason (R) : This mode was formerly known as subject bundle.

(A) is true, but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false

52. Assertion (A) : DDC is an enumerative classification scheme.
Reason (R) : DDC has adapted analytico-synthetic approach for the enumeration of classes.

(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false

53. Assertion (A) : Periodical collection is extensively used in University Libraries.
Reason (R) : Academia of University Libraries are engaged in research work.

(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) isthe correct explanation
Both (A) and (R) are false

54. Assertion (A) : Marketing libraries is necessary to promote the use of library products and services.
Reason (R) : Information commodities are not saleable and cannot be consumed.

(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not correct explanation

55. Assertion (A): Information can be obtained from several sources other than libraries
Reason(R): The scope of library science is narrower than information science

(A) is false and (R) is true
(A) is true and (A) is false
Both (A) and (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) is false

56. Assertion (A): Abstract is a concise representation of the content of the document similar to that of original
Reason(R): Abstract is a time saving device

(A) is true and (A) is false
Both (A) and (R) is false
(A) is false and (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) is true

57.Assertion (A): Cataloguing in Publication Program (CIP) is initiated by Library of Congress
Reason(R): It helps individual libraries in copying down the data

(A) is false and (R) is true
(A) is true and (A) is false
Both (A) and (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) is false

58.Assertion (A):Web has become a hub for all activities of library users.
Reason(R): Web is being used as popular publishing media

Both (A) and (R) are true, But (A) is not correct explanation
(A) is true and (A) is false
(A) is false and (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are false

59. Assertion (A):Cost and price are one and the same
Reason(R):Cost is what it costs to do something, whereas price is a matter of strategic decision

(A) is false and (R) is true
(A) is true and (A) is false
Both (A) and (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) is false

60.Assertion (A) : Information is like water. It takes shape in any form.
Reason (R) : Availability of information is regarded as a factor to decide form of document

(A) is false (R) is true
(A) is true (R) is false
Both (A) and (R) true
Both (A) and (R) false

61.Assertion (A) : Reprint in one of the primary source of information
Reason (R) : It looses its importance once journal in which it has published has been received by the library

(A) is true, (R) is false
(A) is false and (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) false

62.Assertion (A) : Book classification need not based on content of a book.
Reason (R) : Classification of content of book leads to knowledge classification

(A) is true, (R) is false
(A) is false (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) true
Both (A) and (R) false

63.Assertion (A) : An indexing language, which is an artificial language was controlled vocabulary.
Reason (R) : It depicts different relationships between the terms.

(A) is true, (R) is false
(A) is false (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false

64.Assertion (A) : The budget is an estimation of revenue and expenditure for the coming year.
Reason (R) : The purpose of budget is to unit expenditure to income and to assure wisely planned spending.

(A) is true, (R) is false
(A) is false (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) false

65.Assertion (A) : Media is not essential for information flow
Reason (R) : But message is one of its focuses

(A) is true, (R) is false
(A) is false (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false

66.Assertion (A) : ‘Library on wheels’ and ‘Library Websites’ are some forms of extension service.
Reason (R) : Extension services are rendered to serve more users.

(A) is true (R) is false
(A) is false (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are false
Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation

67. Assertion: Library catalogue is an inventory of collections that meets most of the approaches of the users
Reason (R): Catalogues include all the bibliographic details of the document

Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false
(A) is true, but (R) is false
(A) is false, but (R) is true

68. Assertion(A): Information systems support research and developmental activities for national development of the country
Reason (R): Information is a necessary resource for national development

Both (A) and (R) are true
(A) is true, but (R) is false
Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation
(A) is false, but (R) is true

69. Assertion(A): Meta search engines do not have their own databases of webpages
Reason (R): Meta search engine acts as an intermediary to pass a search query to gather response from the individual search engines

(A) is false, but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true
(A) is true, but (R) is false
Both (A) and (R) are false

70. Assertion(A): Reference services is the heart of all library activities
Reason (R): Ready reference is to be provided with least possible time.

(A) is true, but (R) is false
(A) is false, but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation
Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation

71. Assertion(A): User studies helps to understand the needs and problems of the users
Reason (R): The objective of the library is to accelerate the use of library collection

Both (A) and (R) are true
(A) is true, but (R) is false
Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation
Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation

72. Assertion (A): A twisted pair cable consists of two insulated copper wires
Reason (R): The twisting of the two wires present electromagnetic interference and radiations

Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false
(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true

73.Assertion (A): Database systems demand that data should be accessed easily
Reason (R): Approaches of the users differs from user to user

(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false

74.Assertion (A): Libraries are facing threat and are bound to disappear soon.
Reason (R): Internet provide access to oceans of information world wide.

Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false
(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true

75.Assertion (A): There are larger number of international information systems.
Reason (R): There is no relevance of local documentation service

Both (A) and (R) are false
Both (A) and (R) are true
(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true

76.Assertion (A): There are largenumber of classification schemes
Reason (R): Library classification scheme are sufficient to arrange the web resources

(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false

77. Assertion (A): Vocabulary control devices are helpful in increasing the precision of the results of information search
Reason (R): Vocabulary control devices are helpful in limiting the recall

(A) is true but (R) is false, and (R) is logical explanation of (A)
(A) is false but (R) is true, and (R) is logical explanation of (A)
Both (A) and (R) are false, and (R) is not logical explanation of (A)
Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is logical explanation of (A)

78.Assertion (A): Metadata hold much promise for information retrieval and access in digital age
Reason (R): Metadata can save number of functions including description, resource discovery and management of resources

(A) is true but (R) is false
(A) is false but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false

79.Assertion (A): INFLIBNET provides document delivery services to all types of libraries in India
Reason (R): Modern technologies are made it possible for electronic transmission of required documents

Both (A) and (R) are true
(A) is false but (R) is true
Both (A) and (R) are false
(A) is true but (R) is false

80. Assertion (A): Histogram are good when your data is in categories (such as "Comedy", "Drama", etc)
Reason (R): When you have continuous data (such as a person's height) then use a Bar Graphs

(A) is false but (R) is true
(A) is true but (R) is false
Both (A) and (R) are true
Both (A) and (R) are false

81.Assertion (A) : Internet can replace libraries.
Reason (R) : Google searches will satisfy the maximum users needs.

Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
(A) is true but (R) is false.
(A) is false but (R) is true.

82.Assertion (A) : Federated search technique is an integral component of an information portal.
Reason (R) : ‘Content Index’ contains content that is find by the search server.

Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
(A) is true but (R) is false.
(A) is false but (R) is true.

83.Assertion (A) : A combination of hypertext and Hypermedia contains text, images, sounds and other information.
Reason (R) : Hypermedia information is represented in a linear fashion.

(A) is true and (R) is false.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
(A) is false and (R) is true
Both (A) & (R) are false.

84.Assertion (A) : Book selection should be done judiciously.
Reason (R) : A library should acquire important and latest book selection tools.

(A) is true but (R) is false.
(A) is false but (R) is true.
Both (A) & (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
Both (A) & (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

85.Assertion (A) : TQM promotes the way in which a library is organised and perform its ICT functions.
Reason (R) : TQM is seen as a hindrance to library and information services.

Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
(A) is false and (R) is true.
(A) is true and (R) is false.

86. Assertion (A) : The array of classes 11, 12, 13 and the array of classes 31, 32, 33 are said to be collateral arrays.
Reason (R) : They are derived from the original universe
(A) is false, (R) is true.
(A) is true, (R) is false.
Both (A) & (R) are true.
Both (A) & (R) are false.

87.Assertion (A) : RDF supports the use and exchange of metadata on the web.
Reason (R) : Bibliographic standards are the means to create and disseminate secondary information.

(A) is true, (R) is false.
(A) is false, (R) is true.
Both (A) & (R) are correct.
Both (A) & (R) are false

88.Assertion (A) : Informative abstracts provide a concise summary of the subject content of an article.
Reason (R) : These are title-oriented than finding-oriented.

Both (A) and (R) are true
(A) is true but (R) is false.
(A) is false but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.

89.Assertion (A) : E-publications have added enormous quantity of literature but adversely affected the quality of literature.
Reason (R) :Present decade has accepted E-publication as channels of fast communication.
(A) is true (R) is false.
(A) is false, but (R) is correct.
Both (A) & (R) are false.
Both (A) & (R) are true.

90.Assertion (A) : Encyclopedias are not relevant for finding geographically information.
Reason (R) : Encyclopedias are the substitute for all categories of reference sources.

(A) is false but (R) is true.
Both (A) and (R) are true.
Both (A) and (R) are false.
(A) is true but (R) is false.
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