Information : Nature, Property and Scope

1) Give the definition of knowledge as understood in the context of knowledge management.
Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight and grounded intuition that provides an environment and framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the minds of knowers. In organisations, it often becomes embedded not only in documents or repositories but also in organisational routines, processes, practices, and norms.

2) List the characteristics of knowledge.
The characteristics of knowledge are:

  • Knowledge is infinite intangible and difficult to measure.
  • Knowledge is dynamic, continuous, and ever expanding.
  • No final word can ever said of any discipline; they are at best provisional, subject to criticism; correction, contradiction, change or modification.
  • A gifted man may acquire wide knowledge, deep wisdom and spiritual insights but all these are lost when he dies except those that he had recorded.
  • Knowledge once parted to others, there is no loss to the person who parts with it. It sometimes increases with use.
  • Knowledge becomes obsolete.

3) Distinguish between personal and public knowledge.
Personal knowledge is the knowledge of the mind of an individual, although and as such is available only to him/her or through to others if communicated. Public knowledge is the knowledge possessed collectively by a society or a social system. It is supposed to be freely and equally available to all the members of the society. Libraries and information centers provide this kind of knowledge.

4) Why is personal knowledge short lived?
Personal knowledge is short lived because the person who has the tacit knowledge when passes away, the personal knowledge of that individual is lost, unless that knowledge is recorded.

5) Enumerate the modes of formation of subjects as propounded by Ranganathan and extended by Neelameghan
Dissection, Lamination, Denudation, Loose Assemblage, Superimposition; Fission, Distillation of Kind 1, Distillation of Kind 2, Fusion, Agglomeration of Kind 1 and Agglomeration of Kind 2.

6) State the purpose of the study of ‘Knowledge about knowledge’ in the
light of interdisciplinary nature of modern subjects.
Studies of knowledge about knowledge gets the library and information professional an insight into the disciplines, to work out intuitively the strategy for information storage and retrieval, intellectual organisation of knowledge, collection development and many other users related information services.

7) What are the roles of sociology of knowledge?
As a theory sociology of knowledge, seeks to analyse the relationship between knowledge and existence. As historical research, it seeks to trace the forms that this relationship has taken in the intellectual development of mankind.
The dual roles of sociology of knowledge are:
To aim at discovering workable criteria for determining the interrelations between thought and action; and to develop a theory, appropriate to the contemporary situation concerning the significance of non-theoretical conditioning factors in knowledge.

8) State the general components of science in explaining its degree of development.
Academic freedom, environment pressure, direct and indirect support to scientific research, motivations of scientists for research and creation of new knowledge, communication of scientific research and evil effects of scientific research.

9) Enumerate a few of the factors influencing scientific development. 
Industrial and government support in relation to economic and social need based research; political factors such as military needs, balance of power, etc. and increasing specialization in the educational system are some of the important factors associated with scientific developments.

10) What constitutes of sociology of literature?
Sociology of literature relates to the study of the writer as a professional, the literary work that the person produces reflecting the social values prevailing at a particular point of time in the society, the reader of the work as a consumer, and the publisher and bookseller as distributors of knowledge who promotes its use.

11) What is the infrastructure created in India to generate new knowledge?
The setting up of a number of R & D institutions in Science, Technology, Social Sciences, Humanities, the establishment of educational and training institutions of higher learning, centers for advanced studies in many disciplines, acquisition and cultivation of technological and managerial skills and expertise through institutes of technology and management, creation of learned societies and professional associations, consultancy organisations to bridge research and industry, multimedia centers and many others are undoubtedly meant to create the necessary conducive environment for knowledge creation, use and utilisation

Aesthetics : The theory of the fine arts and the philosophy of the mind and emotions in
relation to it; that branch of philosophy which deals with the beautiful, the doctrine of taste.
Citation : When a reference “A” is cited in the citing article ‘B’, then the article ‘B’ is referred
as ‘Citation” of reference ‘A’.
Discipline : A branch of knowledge, subject of instruction.
Libertarianism : Principles or doctrines of the freedom of will.
Milieu, Social : Refers to the man’s social environment or surroundings.
Ontology : The branch of metaphysics that studies the nature of existence.
Private Knowledge : The knowledge of the mind of an individual and as such is available to him/
her or through him/her to others, if communicated.
Social Knowledge : The knowledge possessed collectively by a society or a social system and supposed to be available freely and equally to all the members of the society.
Sociology of Knowledge : The science or study of the origin, development, organisation and functioning of human society.
Subject : An organised form of knowledge.

Source: IGNOU Study Material

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