Intellectual Organisation of Information (IOI)

1) What do you understand by ‘intellectual organisation’ in general and with
particular reference to IR systems?
Human Intellect is the power or faculty of thinking, learning, understanding, assimilating, acquiring and organising mental constructs and recording it for communication. In the context of IR, intellectual organisation refers to the intellectual effort to organise the storage and retrieval of information and knowledge, serving users to access their required information precisely, accurately and with speed and ease.

2) What features are important for accessibility of information?
To provide a facility for accessing primary information, secondary services are developed. It should be done in a manner that should provide ease of access, with speed and accuracy and should precisely meet the information requirements of users. Without this effort, accessibility to valuable information
will be more or less lost.

3) Why is it that minimum intellectual effort is not required in derived indexing systems. Name some of these systems.
Derived indexing systems derive their information from the document(s) for indexing and are therefore highly amenable for computer organisation with least intellectual effort. KWIC, KWAC, Citation indexing are a few examples.

4) What are the intellectual requirements for assigned indexing? What aspects of assigned indexing could be relegated to computers?
Assigned indexing require intellectual ability to assign keywords to the thought contents of documents in such a way that these selected terms could effectively represent the contents and make it possible to retrieve the precise information sought by a user. It also involves effective use of framing multi worded search statements, fixing the context. For this the indexer should have a good knowledge of syntactic and semantics of indexing. Assigned indexing require intellectual ability to assign keywords to the thought contents  of documents in such a way that these selected terms could effectively represent the contents and make it possible to retrieve the precise information sought by a user. It also involves effective use of framing multi worded search statements, fixing the context. For this the indexer should have a good knowledge of syntactics and semantics of indexing languages.
The routine operations of arranging the references in a suitable format and order and matching the search terms with the text of documents or surrogates according to inbuilt specific rules can be handled by computer easily.

5) What are the types of indexing languages that are usually used in IR Systems?
Classification systems, Subject Headings Lists, Thesauri, Thesaurofacets are some of the types of indexing language.

6) What are the intellectual components in constructing indexing languages?
The intellectual components in construction of these indexing languages, are the selection of terms, establishing their relationships and indicating them, display of these terms, etc.

7) Discuss briefly the purpose of information service provider interacting with information seeker, indicating the intellectual components and others.
Interacting with an information seeker, an information service provider, should try to extract as much information as possible to get the needs of the user. This is to formulate a query statement, which should help in deciding on the search strategy. The search result depends on the knowledge the information provider has on the database that is being searched and the ability to get right results, consulting the user. More than one search may often be required to get to the precise results.
The intellectual component in this effort is the ability of the information provider in formulating the search strategy, after eliciting the right response from the information seeker.

8) What is the meaning of ‘Content Analysis’?
Content analysis is the effect of analysing the record of human experience and of knowledge; it is a means of studying all types of communication, its nature, its underlying meanings, its dynamic processes, and the people engaged in the act of communication.

9) Explain the purpose and use of Content Analysis.
The purpose of content analysis varies depending upon the activity to which this technique is applied. It is used as a research technique in social sciences, in psychology for counselling and diagnostic studies in psychiatrics. In library and information science, content analysis is used for a number of activities such as indexing and abstracting, classification of user studies, and in the production of a number of information products and user services. It can be used for varieties of purposes, for example, in the analysis of voting pattern in elections. Analytical newspaper reports, studies by institutions who specialise in election predictions, election manifestoes and other types of analysis often made by experts in the field available in the form of published documents, government reports, academic publications, etc. The analysis of all these, will give a comprehensive view of the different shades of opinion and facts, which will lead to a new set of interpretations and implications. Content analysis form the basis of such studies.

10) What are the distinct current trends in IR systems?
IR systems are increasingly becoming computerised, although printed indexes and card catalogues in libraries still exist. But these are also switching over to computerised systems and will get fully automated in the near future. Computer databases have grown phenomenally and are in all conceivable areas. Global databases networks in academic disciplines that includes all education and research materials in almost every specialised areas, business and industry, government resources, current affairs, finance, legal matters are all burgeoning rapidly. These are accessible through Internet and on-line services through commercial information service vendors. Full texts of documents, document surrogates like indexes, abstracts, and a host of bibliographic and other forms of information are accessible to users. Users also have grown with a large number of them making direct access to these databases in a variety of subjects. These users are domain experts with or without any knowledge of using computer-databases, laypersons and information intermediaries who have gone through systematic professional training and experience.

11) State the areas of current research in IR systems.
Better Systems Design; Improved Retrieval Facilities and Strategies, and Human-Computer Interface.

Algorithm : Instructions for carrying out a series of logical procedural steps in a specific order.
Boolean Search : Searching databases using Boolean operators, like, AND, OR, SAME, NOT, in same search field or a combination of search fields.
Exact Match : Searching databases on the topic of a phrase (a combination of words) entered by the searcher that exactly matches.
Best Match : Searching databases on the criteria given by the searcher that almost matches.
Exhaustivity : Navigating in a database, choosing broader search terms to obtain greater number of references.
Heuristic search : User’s search that gets modified continuously in the course search, in the light of knowledge gained at each stage of search results.
Intellectual organisation of information :The power or faculty of the intellect and the mind of  thinking, learning, understanding, assimilating, acquiring  and organising mental constructs and recording them in a suitable form for communication.
Iterative search : Searches of information service provider that get modified in the light of the interaction with users reaction to the search results.
Kaleidoscopic analysis : Pertaining to changing, complex, variety of forms/images in  a manner suggesting changing pattern of a kaleidoscope. A kaleidoscope is an optical instrument in which bits of glass, beads, etc. hold loosely at the end of a rotating tube are shown in continuously changing symmetrical forms by reflection in two or more mirrors set at angles to each other.
Keyword Search : Searching databases on the topic of a keyword entered by the searcher.
Penumbra : Partly shaded area around the shadow of an opaque object, referring the related areas of information to get additional information relevant to a query.
Semantic : Meaning of words and their relationships
Specificity : Obtaining exact references to query, choosing very specific terms in a search.
Surrogate : Person or thing that acts or is used instead of another as substitute; an entry standing for a document.
Syntactic : Words and their order of representation in a multiword entry of an index file.
Umbra : Dark central part of the shadow cast by the earth or the moon in an eclipse, referring here to the exact references to a query.

Source: IGNOU Study Material

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