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Total Quality Management

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Unit-6: Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management is a philosophy and not a technique.
It is based on two basic concepts: quality control and employee participation.

Three main contributors to the Total Quality Management approach are: W. Edwards Deming, Josheph M. Juran and Philip B. Crosby.

Other important contributors are Feigenbaum, Ishikawa, Taguchi and Shigeo.

The principal objectives of Total Quality Management are:
- Continuous improvement of the organisation which must be equal to or greater than that of any competitor;
- Continuous and relentless cost reduction;
- Continuous and relentless quality improvement;
- Total participation i.e., creating an organisation whereby everyone is working towards making the organisation the best in its area of activity; and to capitalise on the sense of achievement and working in a world-class organisation.

A Quality Circle is a small group of between three and twelve people, who do the same or similar work voluntarily, meeting regularly for about one hour per week, in paid time usually under the leadership of their own supervisor, to identify, analyse, and solve some of the problems in their work, presenting recommendations to management and where possible, implementing the solutions themselves.

Once a Circle is formed, it will pass through three distinct phases of development, and a fourth ultimate stage

In Phase 1 Problem Solving, the Circle will have been trained in simple techniques which will enable its members to identify, analyse and solve some of the more pressing problems in their own work area.

In Phase 2, the Circle begins monitoring the efforts for problem solving. By this time, the members should have been trained in simple control techniques and will be encouraged to use these to maintain improvements already made.

In Phase 3, Circle will progress from just solving problems to the mentality of seeking ways of making improvements. If the Circles pass through Phases 1, 2 and 3, they develop maturity and worthy of trust by management. The organisation begins to realise much of the early potential available from this style of management and seek ways of the early potential of both furthering the continuous development of the existing Circles, and encouraging new ones.

Two types of efforts have been developed to improve quality in library and information systems and services.

They are: 1) Evaluative studies and 2) Value added models. The former examines existing library and information products and services to evolve standards of performances measuring yardsticks to test efficiency of information retrieval systems, databases and networks.

Value added models have evolved methods for improving the quality of information from its stage of data, to information and to knowledge. At every stage value is added so that these could serve in making decisions and for other similar purposes.                

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