Unit 1- Information and Communication

The word ‘data’ is Latin in origin, and literally, it means anything that is given.

UNESCO defines data as ‘facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner
suitable for communication, interpretation or processing by human or automatic

For categorizing data in sciences, certain parameters are used.

There are six parameters using which six basic types of data are derived. Within
each of these types there are two or three classes.

The parameters for categorization used in sciences are:
1) time factor,
2) location factor,
3) mode of generation,
4) quantitative values,
5) terms of expressions, and
6) modes of presentation.


information, late 14c., "act of informing," from Old French informacion, enformacion 

"information, advice, instruction," from Latin informationem (nominative informatio) 

Brookes, the well known British Bibliometrician and Information Scientist, calls the
fundamental equation of information science.

K [S] +D I = K [S+ D S],

which states in its very general way that the knowledge structure K[S] is changed to the new modified structure K[S + D S] by the information I, the S indicating the effect of the modification. 

In other words, K is a knowledge structure and [S+ DS] is modified knowledge structure caused by the absorption of the increment of information DI to K [S]

The barriers to communication of information flow are of the following kinds:

Language ,Jargon, Presentation,Over Population Pollution (Noise), Delays in Handling,
Economic, Political, Legal Barriers.


The word ‘Communication’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Communis’, which means ‘sharing’.

Elements of Communication Process

Most of the communication systems, whether sophisticated or not, are perceived to possess the following basic elements:

l Information source
l Encoder
l Message
l Communication Channel
l Noise
l Decoder and
l Receiver/Destination.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication 1949

Lasswell’s Model

Lasswell, a U.S. Political Scientist developed this model in 1948.

The model is summarised as “Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect”?

George Gerbner’s Model

This model is conceptually different from the earlier two models. Gerbner  developed this model in 1956.

Schramm Model. 1971

Bits, nats and hartleys : Units assigned to dimensionless measure of information depending on the base of logarithm used. Bits when the base is 2, nats when the base is e and hartleys when the base is 10.


  1. Thank you sir.. its very useful

  2. I think The Schramm's Model emphasized in 1954

  3. I think The Schramm's Model emphasized in 1954

  4. Thanks sir ... is very useful information...

  5. Thanks sir it is very important information

  6. very important Data so daily more chapter /link send my Email Id Thanks Sir

  7. पुस्तकालय विज्ञान के विद्यार्थियों के लिये अत्यंत उपयोगी
    आपके के इस प्रयास के लिये आपका अभिनन्दन करता हूँ

  8. Very useful sir

  9. Rajshree Autade5/02/2016 10:46:00 AM

    Thanks a lot sir...it's really very important...

  10. Thank u Very much sir , for giving the nice coaching in web

  11. Hello, Sir
    Very very useful information at a one place, Sir kindly send the notes in Hindi, It will be helpful for them also.

  12. Hello Sir,
    Very very useful info at one place, thanks for the effort, If possible kindly send the link in Hindi also, it will be more helpful, And add quiz about mobile OS, android etc... and ICT also in further units.

    1. I don't know Hindi. If you want in hind, use translation widget


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